Holography is a method of producing a three-dimensional (3-D) image of an object. (The three dimensions are height, width, and depth.) The image it brings to life is referred to as a hologram, from the Greek word meaning "whole picture." Unlike a two-dimensional picture, a hologram allows a person to look "around" and "behind" its subject.
The hologram is actually a recording of the difference between two beams of coherent light. Light is composed of waves that are all the same length and that travel in all directions. Coherent light is in phase, meaning its waves are vibrating and traveling together in the same direction. To create a hologram, a laser beam (coherent light) is split in two: one beam that stays undisturbed, called the reference beam, strikes a photographic plate. The second beam, called the object beam, strikes the subject and then bounces onto the plate. The subject's interfering with the second beam causes the two beams to become out of phase. This difference—called phase interference—is what is recorded on the photographic plate. When a hologram is later illuminated with coherent light of the same frequency that created it, a three-dimensional image of the subject appears.
Birth of the hologram
In 1947, English physicist Dennis Gabor (1900–1979) tried to improve the image-producing capability of electron microscopes, which use streams of electrons rather than light to magnify objects. His solution was
A hologram of the Venus de Milo. (Reproduced by permission of
Photo Researchers, Inc.
to take an electron "picture" of an object. However, this process required a coherent light source—something that did not exist at the time. It wasn't until the early 1960s, when the first working laser was produced, that 3-D images could be created. For developing the basic principles of holography, Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1971.
Uses for holograms
One of the most visible applications of holography is in the field of advertising. Holograms can be found on the covers of magazines, books, and music recordings. In the 1970s, automakers would often use cylindrical holograms to show a new car model. A prospective car buyer could walk around the tube and view the vehicle from all angles, though the cylinder was actually empty.What skills do i have? When should you give up on something? How far grow light from plant? Where does generation z start? How many machine guns are on the nfa registry? How much blogger earn in india? Who is maintenance officer? How much activity does a puppy need? Who meaning urban dictionary? Where architects stay? How to be consistent as a leader? How many examples of faith in hebrews 11? How many plot is 600sqm? How interview works? How many subject pronouns are there in english? When grow corn? How far plant hedge from fence? When improvement exam held 2022 ts? How activities help students learn? 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